Letters to the Editor.

KIRKBYTHORE NATIONAL SCHOOL.

Dear Sir, - A letter having appeared in your last week's issue, emanating
from "A poor Householder," which was altogether so onesided and calculated
to give a wrong impression throughout the country w

...
TUESDAY & WEDNESDAY's POSTS From the LONDON GAZETTE.

A     M    E     R    I    C     A

BALTIMORE, JAN. 30

The following is an extract of a letter from GENERAL WASHINGTON to the Congress, dated Jan. 22, 1777.

" My Last was on the 20th inst. since that I ...
The coroner on Friday held an inquest at Guy’s Hospital upon the body  of
Mrs. Charolette BELL, aged 44 of 9 Fernlee road, Camberwell, who committed  
suicide.

The deceased had given way to habits of intemperance, and had pledged  almost
every thing ...

 

SMALL NEWS ITEMS.

 

MR. BRIGHT is improving slowly.  He sits up for two hours and a half each day.

_____________________

 

The record of admissions on Saturday was  11, 05S.  The total since the opening is 1,520,853.

_____________________

 

...
______

A Bill has just recently been introduced into the Legislature of the  State
of New York, has been read twice, and referred to the Game Law Committee,  who
have reported favorably thereon.

The new Act is in fact an amendment of a section in the...

Farewell Words


Our Dublin correspondent telegraphs that the Duchess of  Marlborough has
addressed a letter to the distressed districts of Ireland,  written in English and
Irish, and dated Viceregal Lodge, Dublin, April  21.

Her Grace says before leavi...
LORD  DUFFERIN
(By Telegraph)

A Central News Telegram from Constantinople, yesterday says: - Lord  DUFFERIN
sails for Egypt in the Antelope this afternoon. He will have no  previous
audience of the Sultan. A request to postpone his departure was  reitera...
WHITEHAVEN AND  DISTRICT

THURSDAY.
____

At this market there was only a small supply of wheat, and the  prices were
16s to 17s. Barley sold at 11s 6d. A fair supply of oats, which sold  at 8s 3d.
Indian corn keeps dear, and little doing in store wheat.

***...

On Wednesday Mr. Norris NICHOLSON and a jury of 23 gentlemen concluded  an
inquiry at the White Hart, Brislington, Bristol, into the sanity of Mr.  Charles
Pierre MELLY, a member of the firm of MELLY Brothers, merchants,  Liverpool.
The petitioner in

...
"LOOK HERE!"



       "LOOK HERE!" - Numerous, indeed, are the stratagems not unfrequently
resorted to by our shopkeepers, as an incentive to induce the public to become
purchasers of their wares; but all others are completely cast  in the shade
...

        DEATH OF HUGH LEE PATTINSON, F.R.S.

                    ________   ^   ________

               [From the Gateshead Observer]

Our obituary column records the death, at Scots House, West Boldon,
Gateshead, of one of the "remarkable men" of the North  --  Hugh Lee
Pattinson, Esq., a native of Alston, in Cumberland, where he was born on
Christmas Day, upwards of 60 years ago.  The son of a respectable tradesman,
Mr. Pattinson took part in his father's business till manhood, when, as a
mineralogist, he entered upon a wider sphere, and the appointment was
subsequently conferred upon him of Assayer to the Lords of the Manor of
Alston, (The Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital).  He was afterwards
engaged in the same capacity at Mr. BEAUMONT's lead-works in Blaydon;  and
here it was that he achieved his world-wide fame.

The desirableness of some more economical mode of extracting silver from
lead, had been long obvious to those conversant with that branch of our
national industry, and Mr. Pattinson was for some years engaged in
occasional experiments on the subject.  He attempted, in vain, to separate
the lead from the silver by distillation and long-continued fusion.  Various
other experiments were tried, both in the dry way and by the application of
liquid menstrua.  All were alike unsuccessful.  but his patient labours were
not to go unrewarded.  It happened, in the month of January, 1829, that in
the prosecution of his object he required lead in a state of powder, and to
obtain it, adopted the mode of stirring a portion of melted lead in a
crucible, until it cooled below its point of fusion, by which process the
metal is reduced to a state of minute sub-division.  He was now on the
threshold of his great discovery.
    One of those pregnant hints of Nature, offered to ordinary minds in
vain, was presented to Mr. Pattinson's observant eye;  and the secret of
success was his.  He saw  --  and was struck with the fact  --  that as the
lead cooled down to nearly its fusing point, solid particles, like small
crystals, made their appearance among the molten mass, gradually increasing
in quantity as the temperature fell. Having watched the phenomenon twice or
thrice, he began to conceive that possibly some difference might be found in
the proportions of silver held by the part that crystallized and the part
that remained liquid;  and following up his conjecture by experiment, its
truth was demonstrated  --  the liquid lead yielding, on cupellation, much
more silver than the crystals.  Three or four years passed away before Mr.
Pattinson made his discovery practically available to the extent of his
wishes;  there were difficulties to be overcome in its profitable
application;  but all these gave way before his ingenuity and perseverance;
and the result, as estimated twenty years ago, was equivalent to an addition
of 54,000 ounces of silver to the wealth of England and Wales  --  a
considerable portion of which, it is pleasant to know, found its way into
his own pockets.  And while the lead was impoverished of its silver, it was
improved in character by the abstraction  --  an operation which the
reflecting moralist may trace in the analogous experiences of humanity.

Prior to Mr. Pattinson's process (for which he took out a patent) the
extraction of silver from lead could only be pursued with profit when the
more precious metal was present in the proportion of 20 ounces to the ton.
The minimum was now reduced to 3 ounces;  lead mines, before neglected,
could be worked with advantage;  and the new mode of working came into use
far beyond the limits of our own island.

We have enlarged upon Mr. Pattinson's great act of alchemy, with which his
name will for ever be associated: - among his other improvements in the
industrial arts, there is but one more that we will mention  --  his
substitute for white lead.  With "sulphate of alumina," the "concentrated
alum" of commerce (the manufacture of which was originated by the Felling
Chemical Company), was exhibited in 1851, at the Crystal Palace in Hyde
Park, "oxichloride of lead," prepared by decomposing native galena by the
hydrochloride acid, which is produced in great excess in the manufacture of
soda:  -  dissolving the chloride of lead thus formed in boiling water, and
mixing the solution with the proper quantity of lime water to convert one
half of the chloride into oxide.  The old plan is to convert metallic lead
into white lead: - the new to obtain the white lead direct from the ore.
Specimens, with illustrations  of its use in oil-painting, were sent to the
Exhibition from the Washington Chemical Works, by the son-in-law of the
deceased, Mr. ISAAC LOWTHIAN BELL.

In 1838, when the British Association for the Advancement of Science met in
Newcastle, Mr. Pattinson was one of the most potent wizards of "the wise
week."

We have said it was in Blaydon the deceased discovered the secret which led
to his "patent process."  We trace not his next immediate movements in life;
but in or about the year 1834, in partnership with Mr. JOHN LEE (a
relative), and Mr. GEORGE BURNETT, both of whom he survived, he commenced
the Felling Chemical Works, which now cover a larger area than the Crystal
Palace, and employ a thousand workmen.  Ten years later - about 1843 - the
deceased commenced, also, the works at Washington, in which are carried on,
amongst other manufactures, that of magnesia, by a process discovered by
himself, and patented  --  the result being a much purer and cheaper
article, and one which has driven almost every competitor out of the field.
In the neighbourhood of the Washington Works a populous and growing
community now exists, which will make a respectable figure in the census of
1861, under the head of "Pattinsontown".

In 1850, the deceased was appointed, in Newcastle, to the office of a Local
Commissioner in promotion of the Great Exhibition of 1851;  and with other
eminent chemists (M. DUMAS, the distinguished Frenchman, being Chairman), he
served on the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Jury at the Crystal Palace.

He was a man of unbounded munificence.  His public subscriptions were ever
liberal, and his private charity extensive.  Meeting, some years ago, one of
his friends in the street, whom he knew to be interested in a charitable
institution of recent date, he spontaneously introduced the subject, and
asked "What he must give? - how much to the building fund, and how much to
the annual income?" The estimate was made.  "Nay," said he, "you must double
that."  And such, in all things, was the lamented deceased.  He was an
ardent friend of education, and especially amongst his own people.  We have
frequently had occasion to mention the excellent schools and reading-rooms
established in connection with the works in which he was a partner.  No
expense was ever spared, if he thought the workmen or their children could
be improved in their education;  and baths, savings-banks, &c., also had his
care.  He invariably treated the humblest individual in his employ with
consideration and kindness.  He loved particularly the people of his native
town.  His tongue was racy of the soil that gave him birth, and his heart
warmed to its inhabitants.  He was ever ready to aid them in their good
works.  He was one of the largest subscribers to their beautiful Town Hall,
of which he laid the foundation-stone, but the opening of which he must not
behold.  He will be there, however, in the thoughts of all when the ceremony
takes place;  for well they know that in him they have lost one of their
best friends.

"The old master" was sorely missed at the Felling Chemical Works, when last
the annual examination of the schools was held, and he, for the first time
was absent.  Many of the children were observed in tears - his best
monument.

The deceased was a member of the Royal, the Royal Astronomical, and many
other learned societies.  He died a Vice-President of the Literary and
Philosophical Society of Newcastle  --  of which on the nominationn of the
Rev. ANTHONY HEDLEY, and others, he was elected a member on the 6th of
March, 1822.

Much earlier, however, (while yet at Alston), he had the use of its
philosophical apparatus;  and he was ever sensible of his obligations to the
institution in his youth.  From his boyhood the deceased was known for his
"turn" for mechanics and chemistry;  and he early became so proficient that
he delivered lectures to his townsmen and the surrounding villagers with
illustrative experiments.  Nor, to the latest year of his life did he cease
to be a student, but was ever careful to keep pace with the science of the
day.

He was also a man of great general information  --  had a rich fund of
anecdote and a genial disposition  --  and was an instructive and
entertaining companion.

MRS. PATTINSON, who was born, we believe, on the same day with himself,
survives her husband;  and he also leaves a son and three daughters: - HUGH
LEE PATTINSON, Esq., of Stote's Hall, Jesmond;   MRS. R. B. BOWMAN, of
Newcastle;   MRS. ISAAC LOWTHIAN BELL, of Washington;   and MRS. R. S.
NEWALL, of Gateshead.

The funeral of this eminent gentleman took place at the village of
Washington on Saturday.  The chief mourners comprised:

HUGH LEE PATTINSON, Esq., son of deceased
ISAAC LOWTHIAN BELL, Esq., Washington and
ROBERT BOWMAN, Esq., Jesmond, sons-in-law
W. WATSON PATTINSON,Felling New House,nephew
R.S. NEWALL, Esq., Fern Dean, Gateshead
J. HYLTON, Esq.
R. READMAYNE, Esq, Felling
THOMAS BELL, Esq., Usworth House
JOHN FORSTER, Esq.
J. WILSON, Esq., of Newcastle
W. SWAN, Esq., Washington

Many other gentlemen and 600 workmen attended.  The neat little church was
crowded to excess.  Mr. Pattinson is deposited in a vault at the east end,
at the head of which stands a monumenntal stone, recording the deaths of
WALTER, his beloved child, who died March 6th, 1847, aged six years;  and
also THOMAS, who died at Para, in Brazil, July 17th, 1856, aged nineteen.
The coffin (the outer of oak and the inner of lead) was covered with black
cloth, ornamented with brass.  On the breast-plate was engraved the
following inscription: -

                 HUGH LEE PATTINSON

                                DIED

                    NOV. 11th, 1858,

                    AGED  62 YEARS.
               =====================